My Favorite Things

趣味のなんでもコレクション  ラジオから流れてきた、どこかで聞き覚えのあるメロディ、なじみ深い作品や目新しい印象的な楽章など…

Level 1

参考: レベル1 英語の基礎をなす必須単語(アルクのレベル別語彙リスト)、Merriam-Webster Learner's dictionary, Oxford Learner's Dictionaries, Collins Dictionary, Vocabulary.com, Michael Swan's "Practical English Usage"

基本の単語は重要文法事項が満載

前置詞なしの例

「他動詞だから」ではなく「だから他動詞」

answer the phone / the question / you / criticism 弁解する / (to) the description 一致する(=match) ▶前置詞を入れると少し派生できる - answer to my boss〔義務的に報告する〕 - answer for someone〔代弁する〕 - answer for someone's safety〔安全を保障する〕- have to answer for the damage〔責任を負う〕

enter the room / the number / a college ▶抽象的なことに「入る」意味には前置詞 intoenter into a discussion / an agreement / a partnership / my imagination

married her / him / a lawyer〔動作動詞〕▶ 状態には be marriedget married は「式」を思わせる臨場感がある(参考)〔get は口語〕

reach the top / an agreement / you

前置詞と一緒に言う例

「自動詞だから」ではなく「だから自動詞」

hope for your success / good weather / the besthope that sv や hope to do の形で他動詞にもなる〕It was hoped for と受動態にもなる

listen to me / the music〔listenは自動詞用法しかなさそう〕

look at themlook where sv という形で他動詞にもなる- look up at the sky, look down on the street〔up, down は副詞 

reply to the question / youthat-節や直接話法を目的語にとるとき他動詞

慣用句には理屈で説明できないものもある (Michael Swan, PEU, §448-1) 

of前置詞にしかならないが、所属や関連の「の」に始まり、 about, from, for, by 近い意味など多様に用いられる。

★「について」の意味では of < about < on の順で仰々しくなる

A of B は通常「BのA」だが「AのB」と読む場合もある。

- a dozen of eggs〔AのBと読む例〕また、動詞や形容詞の目的語を導いて「AからBを」というような場合もある。

- fear of the criminal〔A of B のBは、Aの主語にも目的語にもなる

★It's quarter to[《米》of] ten. 9時45分

★be used of(for のほうが一般的 » 参照1参照2

★動詞の後で動詞の目的語く (Oxf, of-10) - think of  材料・構成要素 - be made of - be composed of〔で・から〕  理由(M-W, of-11-d)- JFK died of bullets.  取り除かれるもの(M-W, of-12- be deprived of - be cleared of 〔say of や drink of など珍しい表現は文学的か古風(参照:stackexchange)〕  be of + 抽象名詞=形容詞の働き - I am glad to be of help. (=helpful) - Will this be of use to you? - It is (of) no use crying.〔no, any, some がつくと of は省略可〕- Eating a balanced diet is of paramount importance to maintain good health.

〔前置詞句は補語や主語にもなる〕

be of particular interest 特に興味深い

- Of particular interest to the Japanese company has been a planned $1.25 billion, 84-mile high-speed railway network in the U.S.A. (2012 関西学院大) 

形容詞の後で形容詞の目的語を導く(Oxf, of-11- be proud of

人の振る舞いを表す形容詞の主語を示す(Oxf, of-12) - It's kind of you.

動詞of

come of から生じる - What come of the meeting?【比較】- The stone came off (of) this ring.

die of/from のため・で死ぬ〔of のほうが好まれる〕

dream of の夢を見る - Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, concentrate the mind on the present moment. (Buddha).

hear of を聞き知っている、聞いたことがある - I've never heard of it. 〔第1文型〕【比較】-hear a good news of her. 〔他動詞/第3文型〕

know of  - I know of no way of judging the future but by the past. (Patrick Henry)

let go of を放す、放つ - Don't let go of the rope. (=Don't let the rope go.) - It's time to let go of the past. (=to let the past go) (Oxf)〔忘れる〕

to say nothing of A Aは言うまでもなく =of course, not to mention, needles to say

sing of《古風》《正式》〔特に賛辞して歌や詩に〕を言う、歌う

Speaking of A Aと言えば…〔懸垂分詞(分詞構文)〕

nothing to speak of 話すほどのことは何もない

talk of - Economists talk of lowering interest rates to spur spending. (Vocabulary.com)

tell of《正式》1《文学》の話をする、を知らせる - notices telling of the proposed job cuts (Oxf) 2示す = indicate - Her smile told of her good news. (M-W)

think of  1[+ sb/sth (as sth)] [+ doing sth] 1を思う、とみなす、思い・考えを抱く 2(アイディアを)考え巡らす、思いつく 3〔主に can に続けて(記憶から)〕を思い出す、思いつく

tire of  =be tired of に飽きる

tellof B AにBを話す

be born of sth に生まれる

believe A of B AをBのできることと思う、BのAと信じる - I can't believe such a thing of Julia. (L. M. Montgomery, 2013, Fiction)

clear A (of B) A(のB)をきれいにする

make A of B 〔 » make B A BをAにする〕- Thus conscience does make cowards of us all. (Shakespeare) - Don't make a habit of it (=it a habit). - make a friend of an enemy - I don't know what to make of (=think of) the performance.(話の意味や人柄など)を理解する 〕

make fun/use/fool/sense of sb/sth

make a day of it 何かひとつの(主に楽しい)ことで1日を費やす

make light of sth 軽んじる make light work of sth 簡単に済ます

be+形容詞+of 〔ほぼ他動詞の働き〕

be afraid of を怖がる =fear for, worry about

be careful of/about/with に気をつける

be careful of = beware of = watch out, it may hurt you.
be careful with = handle it carefully = be careful, you may hurt it.

be proud of を誇る・自慢にする

be sick/tired of に飽きる =bored with, annoyed about

be sure of を確信している

be true of に該当する

 

as《と同様に》副詞、前置詞、または接続詞とさまざまな文法的な役目の品詞に使われるが、語源は古英語の 'similary' に当たる単語で、いずれの品詞でも「と同様に」を意味する。それに加えて、前置詞に「として」、接続詞に「と同時に」「だから」の意味がある他、「だけれども」と譲歩の意味で特殊な形を取る。また、動詞が直接続く場合は疑似関係代名詞(代名詞と接続詞の働きを併せ持つもの)。

〔接続詞〕と同様に と同時に =while, when 《理由》だから =because 《譲歩》だけれども =though〔文頭に形容詞・無冠詞の名詞・副詞・動詞のいずれかを出し、may, will, would などを伴うことが多い/残りの主語動詞の倒置*はない〕《米方言》ということを〔that-節の that の代わりに〕

*倒置:主語と動詞の語順の入れ代わりを指す文法用語で、文の一部を文頭に出すことは倒置とは呼ばない。また、倒置法と言うと修辞用法の一つで強調を目的とするもので、また別物。

as adj/adv (a noun) as …前の as副詞

- as happy as me後の as は前置詞(名詞・名詞相当語句が続く)

- as happy as I am後の as は接続詞(主語述語(=節)が続く)

- I'm just as happy at home (as (I am) out / at school).〔後の as以下は省略可〕

- He is as wise a man as ever lived. (=He is a man to that extent wise, to which extent any man that ever lived was wise.) (Hidesaburō Saitō, Kobunsha, 1899) 普通に賢いの意〔後の as は関係代名詞a man が先行詞/as-節にanyone などを補えば as は接続詞になる)〕("He is as wise as anyone who ever lived. His wisdom is equal (but not necessarily superior) to the wisdom of the wisest people who have ever lived." by a native @WordReference Forums.com)

接続詞の例:

1- They did as I had asked.〔頼んだ通りに〕

1- She enjoys all kinds of music, as do I.《正式》倒置。as, than, so の後で助動詞を主語の前に置くことがある。参照: Michael Swan, Practical English Usage, 2009 ▶inversion @ Stack Exchange〕so do I は口語。 as do I はフォーマル。〔ネイティブ説〕

2- He sat watching her as she got ready.〔同時進行〕

3- As you were out, I left a message. 
3- She may need some help as she's new. 
3- As you object, we won't go. 

4- Happy as they were, there was something missing. 
4- Strange as it may seem, I never really wanted to be rich. 
4- Try as he might (= however hard he tried), he couldn't open the door. 

4- Much as I sympathize with your difficulties, there is little I can do to help you. (Macmillan Dictionary)

4- Change your mind as you will, you will gain no additional support. (=Go ahead and change your mind in whatever way you want, but[or though] you will gain no additional support. by me with a native's refinement)〔動詞を文頭に出した例で、動詞に目的語があるとこうなる〕

5- I don't know as I should. 

疑似関係代名詞(relative pronoun):接続詞代名詞を兼ね備えたもので which, who, that と置き換え可能〔 "…where as is preceded by a comma can substitute which, and the other can substitute that, without substantially changing the meaning." (by a native user @Stackexchange.com)

as の後に it を入れると(接続詞に変わるが)分かりやすくなる。

※否定の意味の場合には as は使わない。

疑似関係代名詞の例:

- that kind of fruit as maids call medlars (Shakespeare)

- Detectives are investigating the man's death, as (=which) is standard. (Seattle Times, 2004) 
- It's a way of shaping the new year according to our will, as (=which) is the practice of making predictions. (Wired, 2004) 
- The surface of Mars is dusty and rocky, as revealed by pictures from the robotic space probe. (iKnow!)

- Choose such friends as (=who) will benefit you. 

- He is as wise a man as(=who) ever lived.

- the same color as yours is 

- He goes to the same school as (=that) I do. 
the same は as か that で受けるとは限らず、…the same person who…, …the same sounds which…, …the same time when…, …the same place where… という場合もある/ロイヤル英文法 §309, p652, 注-2

- The researchers gave baboons and monkeys the same amount of the drug as (=that, which) is often taken at all-night rave parties. (Chicago Sun-Times, 2002)

- They should sit as close to the webbing as is comfortable. (Yoga Toe & Toe Stretchers)

 

buy vi vt n  - I don't buy it. It's a plain lie.〔《俗》信じる〕

buy第4文型をつくる - I bought you something.「誰かに何かをしてあげる」と言うタイプの授与動詞なので、前置詞を使って(第3文型に)書き換える際は恩恵の対象者を表わして for を用いる:I bought something for you.(下の箱に詳細あり▼)

buy主語はヒトに限らず、モノ(お金)も主語になる.- things that money can buy〔「お金買えるもの」に匹敵〕- A dollar doesn't buy much.〔「100円じゃ何も買えない」に匹敵〕

- I reckon another five thousand pounds will buy us the best property to be had west of Charters Towers. (THE THORN BIRDS, 1977, from Collins Dictionary)

buy sb 人にお金を渡して不正をさせる =bribe - He can't be bought (= he's too honest to accept money in this way) (Oxf)

buy time 時間を稼ぐ 

buy a pig in a poke 実物を見ないで買う

★第4文型から第3文型へ書き換えが可能な時〔何でも可能なわけではない〕

動作の対象には to :I bring / give / hand / lend / pay / read / sell / send it to you.

恩恵の対象には for:I bring / buy / cook / get / make / read / sell it for you.

- I'd like to ask a favor of you.〔丁寧な頼み方/この of は from の意味〕※ question に of は固すぎる。普通 I'd like to ask you a questionI have a question for you と言う (» Stackexchange.com)

- Don't make a habit of it.〔を~にする・変える

- He played a trick on me.

more ▼)

▶第4文型 [svoo] になる動詞

授与動詞(bring, build, buy, cookget, give, leave, lend, make, offer, pass, paypromise, readsell, send, show, singteach, tell , write など)、ask, bear, cost, owe, play, post, refuse, take, throw, wish など太字はレベル1の単語)

tell と違って say, talk, speak は第4文型にならない

そのうち自然と暗記してしまうかもしれないけれど大事なフレーズ:

I tell you this.〔SVOO 第4文型〕人に何かを話す - told it to him.〔第3文型〕

Say something.〔SVO 第3文型〕何かを言う〔第4文型にはならない(人を目的語にとらない誰にと言うには to が必要)〕- I said that to you.

I'm talking (to you).〔SV 第1文型〕話す - We talked a lot to each other. - He talked (about) himself / business / etc.〔第3文型〕〔話のテーマを目的語にとることはあるが、人を目的語にとることはない/誰にと言うには to が必要

He's speaking (to us).SV 第1文型〕話す - I spoke to the manager. - He will speak in purblic. - He spoke to me in French. - He speaks French.〔第3文型〕- What language is it they are speaking? 〔人を目的語にとらないので第4文型にならない誰にと言うには to が必要

このような伝達動詞は that-節がつく際は、伝える相手は that-節の前に言う(that は省略可)

He told me that sv

He said /spoke / talked to me that sv

that-節は動名詞や to-不定詞と同じように名詞に相当し、主語や目的語、補語になる。節を導くこの that は接続詞〔従位接続詞:従属節を主節につなげる〕〔節とは主語と述語を備えた文の一部分〕

- He told me / said to me (that) he had things to do.〔節を導く that は紛らわしくならない限り省略可だが、きちんとした書面では多過ぎない程度に使うほうが良い〕

- It is said that the history repeats itself.〔形式主語 it を受ける真主語が that-節となっている〕

- Rumor/legend/word/conventional wisdom/ has it that sv. と聞く・言われる〔形式目的語の it と真目的語の that-節/第3文型〕

- I think it possible that Clinton only did better than Obama among white postgraduates. (@Twitter)〔真目的語/第5文型—真目的語の that-節は it が肩代わりしているわけなので第5文型に変わりない〕

- What is it about them that you enjoy so much?

※ that-節を目的語に取らない動詞

try, want, attempt, decline, offer, refuse, etc.

like や hate は - I like (it) that you can cook. や - I like it when you cook. とカジュアルに使われる。

 

 

make do with sth - We were in a hurry so we had to make do with a quick snack. - Make do with what you have.

 

save A (from sthvう - save a life 2る 3 [svo(o)] とっておく - save him a slice of pizza  4 [svo(o)] (発生・必要などを)ぐ - You saved me a trip to the cellar.

save (sb's) face 面子を立てる - Their kindness is just weakness, saving face for their own selves (themselves).

 

fall n 1 落下、落ちること - the fall of her hair (=the way her hair hangs down)(Oxf)、下落、陥落 - the fall of Berlin - fall from grace 評判を落とすこと 2 falls 滝 3《北米》秋

v - fell - fallen1落ちる - Excuse me, but something fell from your bag. (= you dropped something) 2転倒する、倒れる、転ぶ 3垂れる、垂れ下がる 4(坂などが)下る 5(数量・力などが)下落・減退・衰退する - Troy finally fell to the Greeks. 6(叙述する状態に)落ち込む、陥る - fell asleep / silent - fell into conversation / love with - a book falls open at a certaine page - an expectant hush fell on the guests〔期待の静寂〕 7日にちに当たる、分類に当てはまる - Christmas falls on Sunday this year.

fell - felled - felled v 1(木を)切り倒す 2(人を)殴り倒す - He was felled (=killed)《比喩的》

adj《文学的》邪悪な、残忍な

 

限定詞 determiner

オックスフォードの学習者用英々辞書で half, many, some, such は形容詞ではなく限定詞とされる

half 限定詞 代名詞 名詞 副詞

half an hour 半時間 (=a half-hour)

half the time / fun / trouble etc. 最大部分が

half a loaf is better than no bread 《諺》半分でも何もないよりは良い
half a minute / second etc.《口語》短時間

half past one 1時半 (英口語 also half one)

many 限定詞 代名詞

〔ややかしこまった言葉で、so, as, too などで修飾したり、否定文や疑問文に使うことが多い(参照:Oxford Learner's Dictionaries)〕

many a+単数名詞 《やや固め》《強意》多くの

Many a good man has been destroyed by booze. (many a | Oxford Dictionaries)

the many 〔複数扱い〕ほとんどの人

some  限定詞 代名詞 副詞

such  限定詞 代名詞

 

have vt 

1 〔状態動詞/進行形不可〕[+ sb/sth (to do/doing/adj/prep)] (有形無形の事物・経験・性質・能力・時間・予定・子・兄弟・友人・客・知らせ・情報・症状・考えなど)を所有・保持する・が人にある/いる(許可を得て借りて一時的に保持、使用する意を含む - You can have it till tomorrow.)、(事物)がむ、の中にある - The dog has him by the leg. (=the dog is tightly holding his leg in its mouth) (M-W)、〔人の恰好を表現する - has his hands behind his back / his back to the wall

★〔=have got* 口語で特に意味のない got をよくつける(《英》により顕著) - I've got a cold. - I haven't got the time to talk right now. - He's got a way with words. (M-W) ※これから所持することには使わない - She needs to have got it. - May I have got your attention for a moment please?

2 〔進行形可〕(叙述するような)ごす - They're having fun / a party / a nap / etc.〔パーティーなどは現在進行形で近未来の予定にもなる〕

3 have sb/sth do/done/doing sth 〔使役動詞**〕[svoc] (人に・物を)させる・頼む・してもらう〔※同じ形でも4のような場合もある〕 - He had the barber cut his hair. - They would have us believe (=they want/expect us to believe) that all these problems can be fixed by raising taxes. (M-W, also ロイヤル英文法 p390 参照 » I would have you know that I am your boss. ~してもらいたい) - I had my hair done / my printer repaired.〔口語でよく got にする〕- I'd like to have my egg scrambled. - She will have you cleaning your room.

【比較】have sth to do 〔to不定詞の場合は主語にやることがある意〕 - I have you to thank for that. あれはあなたのおかげ・せい〔主語が目的語に感謝する意〕 - It has nothing to do with you. あなたには何も関係ない

 have sb/sth adj/done/adv [svoc] (人/物を叙述する状態)にしてある - I have my homework done / finished / ready.〔完了〕- They've got the loud music on all day. - I had my bag stolen.〔過分・受身・被害/現場で被害者が言うのは "Someone stole my bag!"〕 - You have me worried.〔You made me worriedと似ているが、今もなお心配なままだと言っている〕- We are having guests visiting us on coming Sunday. - Sorry that he's got a stomach ache, but he had it coming. - Now I have the machine running.

** 使役動詞 causative verb〔第5文型を作り目的格補語に動詞の原形分詞をとる〕

let sb do sth 容認する、させておく - He let her speak. - Let there be music and laughter!《正式》(M-W) - Let's do sth =let us do sth let は受動態にせず、be allowed to ~ などにするのが普通

make sb do sth / done (叙述するように)する・させる・変える - The storm made us stay 〔受身には to不定詞 - We were made to stay.【参考:古い諺では能動態でも to不定詞のものがある - Money makes the mare to go. 地獄の沙汰も金次第(ロイヤル英文法, p390)】〕 - make yourself heard / understood

get sb/sth to do/doing/done sth / adj (人・物を叙述するように)する・させる、してもらう、説得する - I can't get these kids to behave / my car to start. - I got my computer to work/working again. - I got an expert to help me solve it. - I got my hair cut. - He already got the work done. - We finally got it right.(参照:M-W, Michael Swan's Practical English Usage, §224)【get は口語的】

help sb/sth (todo sth (人・物が叙述のようにするのを)助ける

知覚動詞使役動詞と同様、動詞の原形の場合がある典型例〔第5文型のとき目的格補語に形容詞や分詞、動詞の原形をとる(受動態には to不定詞)〕

feel, hear, knowlisten to, look at, notice, observe, perceive, see, smellwatch, etc. + sb/sthdo/doing/done sth太字はレベル1の単語)

- I heard him say so. - I watched a duck family cross the street.〔一部始終を見物した〕- I saw a duck family crossing the street.〔渡っているところに出くわした〕- I smell something burning.〔焦げた臭いがする〕- she felt the flame of fire burn deep down inside of her, …  (Mysty McPartland) - I heard my name called. - He was seen to enter the room.〔受動態ではto不定詞になる〕

動詞の原形 infinitive

1助動詞を伴うとき 2疑問詞の後 3命令形 4第5文型の目的格補語 5《主に米》助言や提案などの内容を言う that節内の述語動詞(過程法現在)

第5文型 [svoc] になる動詞

ask, bake, beat, boil, burn, choose, color, consider, cut, declare, drive, dye, elect, get, help, lay, let, leave, lick, make, name, paint, prove, push, render, set, think, turn, vote, wash, wipeなど太字はレベル1の単語)

- paint the wall (in) red - smash the can flat - eat it all gone - talk yourself blue (a native user @ lang-8)

 

同格 apposition

the idea what

the reason why

the time when

the place where

 

感嘆文の基本

How+形容詞または副詞+SV!

What+形容詞と名詞+SV!

- What a beautiful smile your sister has! (Michael Swan, Practical English Usage, §195.2) - What beautiful flowers! - How very good!

部分的な省略はよくあるが、How+SV!の形はやや堅苦しく古めかしいHow you've grown! (Swan's PEU, §195.1)

疑問詞で始まり倒置する感嘆文は古風 - How beautiful are the flowers! - What a peaceful place is Skegness!(§302.2)

倒置を伴う疑問詞のない感嘆文はアメリカ口語 - Have you got a surprise coming!〔have got は have の口語〕- Was I mad!(§302.2)

Complete sentences which start with how or what do, in general, sound self-consciously poetic or old-fashioned, as in the case of your sentence. As always, in English, there are exceptions (don't you just hate it when that happens?). In general, these exceptions are technically incomplete sentences, and their informality counteracts the effect of the construction. Examples: "What an idiot", "How very good", "What a disaster!", or "How that takes me back".

In poetry, of course, sounding poetic is entirely acceptable.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kSQdRz-HlJw

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A3yCcXgbKrE

@ stackexchange.com

 

level [lɛvl] n (量・高さ・深さ・品質・達成度などの)レベル、程度、度合い、水準/段階・階級・地位/視野や考えなどの基準地点 - On a more personal level, I would like to thank .../建物の階層

adj らな/(高さ・位置・値などが)同じの/平常心の、平静な

v 平らにする、均(なら)す/(数値・レベルを)同じにする/建物を倒壊する、木をなぎ倒す/[+ sth (at sb)] (武器を人に)向ける

 

多義語 ★★★★★ (★は重要度:Collins Dictionaryによる頻出度 =★5つが最高)やり直しの英語学習には特にオススメ

practice

to do regulary, repeatedly

(1ならう:繰り返して習う 2ならわし:しきたり)

v  (英 =practise)1平素くり返して練習・訓練する - practice speaking 2《正式》習慣にする、実践する/(医者や弁護士などを)開業する

n 1実践 - the theory and practice of sth 2(社内に定着したやり方など)慣行慣例慣習 - a common practice 習慣 =habit, custom 4練習訓練 5(医者や弁護士などの)開業、開業していること、開業場所

present adj n v

1差し上げる・差し出す(こと) 2存る(こと) 3今

adj 1〔限定用法(名詞の前)〕現在の 2〔叙述用法(補語になる)〕present at sth 居合わせたる、出席している 3present in sth (事物・物質が)

- Bush was taken aback (= greatly surprise) by the directness (=frankness) of the question, according to several people present at the Johns Hopkins Nanjing Center. (Time Magazine, 2002)

n、プレゼント 2 3現在時制 4《複数》この言葉、本書、《法律》本証書 - All shall know by these presents.

- (There’s) no time like the present. 《諺》

vt(特に正式に儀式などで)贈呈する - present him with sth - present sth to him 2《正式》提示する 3す、表現する - present a more modern image / a united front / yourself better / oneself as sth

- Please don't present us with any problem.〔トラブル〕

- Use of this chemical may present a fire risk.〔危険〕

- Compass Theater Company presents a new production of “King Lear".〔映画・ショーなど〕

- I'd like to present my fiancé to you.〔正式に紹介する〕

- The check presented by the customer was denied by the bank.《正式》〔小切手・請求書など 〕

present itself 現れる

- You will be asked to present yourself for an interview.

- Please allow me to present my apologies.《正式》

- In this part of the test, you will be presented with a problem…〔試験問題の文句〕

- Present arms! 〔号令〕捧げ銃(ささげつつ)に!〔敬礼の一種〕

 

 

多義語 ★★★★

minute n 1分 2the minutes 議事録 vt  [mínit] 議事録を書く、会議で発言されたことを書き留める

adj [mnjúːt | -nú:t] 1非常に小さい 2綿密

trip v nってぶ、転びそうになる(こと) =stumble, slip 2 ばせる、間違わせる =trip up - The questions on the test tripped him up. 3(言葉や演奏などを)うっかり間違えること =blunder 4 (通常、用があって) ってる、行って戻ってくる(こと)、旅行(する) 5軽やかな足取り 6 刺激的な楽しい体験 7麻薬による幻覚体験・恍惚状態 8動かす、行動に移す =activate, set off 9何かに反応して動くスイッチのような仕掛け =tripper

 

 

sit vi vt ると言う動作動詞だけでなく、sit doing で何かをしながら座っていると言う状態動詞にもなる.- We sometimes sit talking for hours. - He sat there puffing his cigar.

- She was sitting at her desk.〔進行形も状態を表す〕
- She sits in that chair. 〔単純現在〕

主語が座る・座っている〔第1文型〕と言う自動詞だけでなく、主語が目的語をらせる〔第3文型〕とi言う他動詞にもなる.- She sat us (down) at the table. - I sat the dolls on the shelf.

- a babysitter sits your baby for you.〔これは「子守りをする」意味.They don't sit you, but they sit FOR you.〕

★人や動物だけでなく鳥がとまる〔動作動詞〕ことも言えば、が置かれてある〔状態動詞〕と言うこともある - The car has sat there for days.〔車や家、山などにも言う〕- The box still sits on the table unopened. - They should sit as close to the webbing as is comfortable. (Yoga Toe & Toe Stretchers)

★役職や一員としてのめていることにも使う - …as he sits as a member on the Oak Lawn Board of Appeals, … (US Congress, 2007)

 

sorry adj

学習者用英々辞書によると〔叙述用法〕悲しく同情している/悲しく恥ずかしい/後悔している 2〔限定用法〕よくない、悲しむべき、受け入れがたい、憐れむべき(Oxford Learner's Dictionaries 参照)

To be Sorry does not mean to apologise. To apologise is to admit that you are at fault. But sorry only expresses regret. …more on this page: Apologies 

- You say that I called you an idiot. It is true and I am sorry. (Winston Churchill, 1874–1965)

The politician Winston Churchill was once deliberately ambiguous when he was ordered to apologise in parliament.

(www.english-online.org.uk)

 

shall modal verb 1《やや古風》〔一人称の主語(I or We)で未来必ず起きると思うことや必ずする意志のあることを言う〕

- We shan't be gone long. (Oxford) (=shall not)〔=will not, won't のほうが普通〕

- We shall hope / look forward to sth〔改まった言い方〕

2〔一人称の主語(I or We)疑問文申し出〔1人称の言う申し出=提供の謙譲語提案をしたり相談して相手の意向を聞く〕

- Shall I / we …? しましょうか?致しましょうか?

- I’ll drive, shall I?

- Let's do it, shall we?〔Let's …と提案の付加疑問は誘いであって、疑惑の念があるわけではないので、否定・肯定を逆にする必要がない〕

3《古風・正式》決断・命令・指図・期待

- I am determined that you shall succeed on this occasion. (James Sheridan Knowles, 1847)

… you shall listen to all sides and filter them from yourself. (Walt Whitman, 1819–1892)

modal verb 助動詞 =helping verb, auxiliary verb 

should modal v 1《批判・忠告》べきだ  2《期待》はず 

- I should / shouldn't think so.〔問いに応えた自信のない意見〕

- I should think not!〔強い賛同〕

- I should hope so too!〔強い賛同〕

- Why should I do that?〔驚き・苛立ち〕

用例1:感情表現の後の that-節に - I'm anxious that we should allow plenty of time. - I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to you. (Oxford)

用例2:《正式》〔あり得る条件〕~の - If (=In case) you should return something, please feel free to contact us. - Should you arrive earlier, …〔If を省いて倒置する〕

用例3:間接話法の時制の一致による shall の過去形として〔should は shall の過去形〕- My friends always said that I should be a comedienne - I was named my class clown. (Sally Kellerman, 1937–)

用例4:《英》《正式》〔1人称が主語の条件節に伴い帰結節で would の代わりに〕(~だったら)~しただろう - If I were you, I should resign.

用例5:《英》〔提案や命令などの内容を言う that-節内で〕〔この should は《英》でも省略可▶《米》同様に動詞の原形になる(時制、時間の概念が関係ないため…?)〕- I suggest we (should) be honest.

用例6:《英》《正式》〔礼儀正しい依頼〕- I should like to call my lawyer. - We should be grateful for your help. 

 

stand n 位置姿勢態度 - take a stand on sth - make one's stand clear - make a stand against sth〔攻撃への抵抗、防衛〕- take one's stand 任務につく/(露天商・市場などの)商品の陳列台/売店/(傘・自転車など)~立て/(タクシーやバスの)乗り場、停留所/(法廷の)証人台 - to take the stand as the witness/(スタジアムの階段状の)観覧席/(オーケストラやバンド、スピーチなどの)舞台/木立 - a stand of pines 松の木立

vi 立つ、立ち上がる =stand up - Everyone stood (up) when the president came in. - stand aside to let sb pass - stand back and look at sth - I never know where I stand with him. - stand by one's words 言ったことを守る - stand first in one's class - a house that stands empty 空き家 - I stand corrected. =I admit I was wrong. - stand fast/firm〔態度を変えない〕/姿勢・態度をとる - stand opposed to sth/支持する - Where do you stand on the issue? - stand for sth - stand in for sb 〔代理をする〕stand to do sth (=be likely to do sth)〔第1文型〕- He stands to lose ten dollars.じっとつ、静止する - The bus standing at the platform 3 is the one. - The staff are standing by. 待機中 - As things stand, there's little chance of… - stand still - standing water〔よどんだ水〕える - I can't stand for it. - It doesn't stand[hold] up to scrutiny. 精査に耐えない効力がある - The law still stands. - My offer still stands.(~の)さがある - the man / tree / pole stands 6ft.〔第2文型〕/(~の数値に)ある - Interest rates stand at 3%. - The score stands at 15 to 10./意味する - What does the “TC” stand for?/《英》(選挙に)立候補する/《海事》進路を取る - a ship standing out of the harbor 港を出ていく船

vt を立てる、立たせる - stand the ladder up/を耐える、我慢する - be not able to stand sb - They can't stand it when you do that. - They couldn't stand being kept waiting./をやり通す、体験する/《話》をふるまう、おごる/持ち場につく - stand watch 見張りにつく

- stand out in a crowd

- I don't like you standing over me while I'm studying.

- Right now we stand second for allied attackers and xxxxxx accounts for more than 50%. (A native speaker)

- We stand united in our convictions and could care less what other alliances have to offer.(〃)

- As for me not wanting to fight this war, in my opinion this is an easy and quick war if we just stand tall and wait them out.(〃)

 

rise - rose - risen vi n

自動詞〔海事用語のみ他動詞扱い有〕:上に動く(る/がる/つ;会議を終える/起床する/がる/隆起する)

主語が上方向に動く場合はこれ

主語が目的語を上方向に動かす場合は » 他動詞 raise

名詞:上昇/増幅、増大/上がること/繁栄、興隆

 

wear - wore - worn v 1〔状態動詞〕着ている 2摩耗する、擦り切れる、疲れさせる

n 1衣服

 

wind n 風、息

v wind [wáind- wound - wound

 

自動詞として無生物主語をとり、それを扱う人にとっての便宜性を表現する動詞

bake, clean, compare, cook, cut, eat, feel, handle, keep, lock, read, rent, reprint, ride, sell, show, shut, tear, wash, wear太字はレベル1の単語)

- This product sells well. - This passage doesn't read very well. - This batter / oven / recipe doesn't bake / cook well. - The air feels good. - Once opened, it doesn't keep well.

- The doors open at 8:00.(ロイヤル英文法, §285)劇場などの入場口が開く

能動受動態

動作主を明示せず、能動態のままで受動態を表現する

activo-passive =mediopassive(能動受動態)

(grammar) Of a grammatical voice in which the actor of a stative verb is not expressed. This is a special type of passive voice, which is the general phenomenon of the actor of a verb not being expressed. (mediopassive - Wiktionary)

日本語の、ものが「売れる」「読める」「切れる」などに匹敵し、「売ることができる」「読むことができる」という可能性や能力の意味ですが、「これは売れる」「この文章は読める」と言っても物が売ったり読んだりしないのは自明の理で、受身の意味が言外にあると言えます。

英語の場合、なるほど This product sells well は This product is sold well とほぼ同義と言えそうです。また、自動詞 sell だけで可能性や能力の“大いにあること”を意味して使われます。

can などを付け足そうものならかえって確実性の低さを表現してしまう点は、日本語の「売ることができる」も同じで、なかなかほかに書き換えようのない表現なことが分かります。(▶「埋まる vs 埋める」)

自動詞の他動詞への応用

- He drinks himself to death 危険なほど飲む(Wiktionary, ロイヤル英文法, §162, 2-3-2

- She smiled her welcome. - She smiled a nervous smile.〔同族目的語〕

 

hope to want something to happen and think that it's possible

I hope for the best

I hope (that) you will be ... [svo]

I hope to do it [svo]

It is hoped that the new government ...

It's hoped for in the future ...

want to wish, to need, (informal) should, (formal) to lack

I want to know ... [svo]

I want A adj / doing / to do [svoc] - I want you to know that ...

I want A (to be) done [svoc] - I want it to be true

I what that sv

I want study

wish 

I wish (that) I were/was/knew ... [svo]

I wish (that) I hadn't done ... [svo]

I wish you a Merry Christmas/a good night [svoo]

I wish you well/to stay [svoc] 

I wish to thank you for ... [svo]

I wish for you to be here [sv]

 

fly - flew - flown(飛ぶ)

fly - flied - flied(フライを打つ)

《英口語》fly - fled - fled(逃げる)▶ flee - fled - fled

ski - skied - skied〔普通タイプ〕

study - studied - studied, try - tried - tried〔子音+y→ied〕

enjoy - enjoyed - enjoyed〔母音+y→yed〕

但し、lay - laid - laid, pay - paid - paid

stop - stopped - stopped〔短母音字+1つの子音字で終わる〕

但し、look, jump は普通に -ed

picnic - picnicked - picnicked〔-c +k〕

hold - held - held

lose - lost - lost

wind [wáind](巻く) - wound - wound

run - ran - run

bigen - began - begun, ring - rang - rung, sing - sang - sung, swim - swam - swum

break - broke - broken, choose - chose - chosen, wear - wore - worn

cut - cut - cut, hit - hit - hit, hurt - hurt - hurt, set - set - set, shut - shut - shut

 

about adv1約、およそ =approximately 2ほとんど =almost 3《主に英》方々に、四方八方に 4《主に英》何もせずに、ぼっとして 5《主に英》その辺りに - bring about もたらす 6《専門家》《正式》反対向きに

prep 1について 2に従事して - while you are about it している間 3《主に英》のあちこちに、のどこかに、のそばに 4《文学》周りに =around - She wore a shawl about her shoulders.

adj be about to do

along advへ =forward 2一緒に - along with sb/sth

prep 1に沿って、を辿って・なぞって 2~沿いに 3(特に道など長いもの)の

 

body =:身、胴、死/本(特に建物・本・記事などの中心部)、車、機/団/集合体、ひとまとまりのもの - a body of evidence / information - a body of water/もの、物体 - heavenly / celestial bodies 天 - a foreign body 紛れ込んだもの/(スープ・酒・染料などの)こく、濃厚さ - to add a body to the souce - full-bodied red wine/(頭髪の)豊かさ、ボリューム

=entity =being, person, object, body, etc.

- (to sit is) to occupay a seat as a member of a body of officials: sit in Congress. (The American Heritage Dictionary)

 

country [kʌ́ntri] n adj 国/田舎(の)/カントリー音楽(の)

county [káʊnti] 《英・米・アイルランド》(郡など)自治権のある地域、地方自治体

 

end n v adj

〔(一)端、一方の先端〕

- There was no one at the other end.〔電話で〕

- (a crook is) a long stick with a hook at one end, … (Oxford Dictionary)

- (a pry is) a heavy iron lever with one end forged into a wedge (Vocabulary.com)

〔目的〕- With this end in view これを達成するために - for one's own ends - concessions necessary to this end - to be working toward common ends - One means toward this end is… - It is an end in itself それ自体が目的 

〔部署・部門〕- the marketing end of the business - Are there any problems at your end?

〔死去〕- …came to an untimely end

at the end of the day《口語》結局、やはり

at loose ends[at a loose end] 暇を持て余す - Come and see us, if you're at loose ends.

(to) no end《口語》 =very much

make ends meet 家計をやりくりできるだけ稼ぐ

for days[weeks, months, etc.] on end やむことなく〔強調〕

end product 産物、成果
end-user 消費者

 

ground n 、地面、基盤、底、床 v 地に着ける

from ground up =starting with nothing (EnglishCentral.com) 何もないところから〔その活動の完了後も活動中にも使える〕

 

off adj adv prep vi vt

Fall from outer space. NOT: Fall off outer space.

Fall off (from) the wagon. NOT: Fall from the wagon.

Fall from grace. NOT: Fall off grace.

(by a native @Word Reference.com)

 

dangling so

口語で文末につける接続詞 , so … のことで、so以下を言わずに言明を避けるために使われる。

 

then adv 1(過去や未来の)その時、当時 - Life was harder (backthen because neither of us had a job. - She grew up in Zimbabwe, or Rhodesia as it then was. (Oxf)〔ジンバブエ、当時のローデシア〕 2次に 3(結果を示して)それなら - If you miss that train then you'll have to wait for half an hour. - These, then, are the main areas of concern. - Right then, I'll be back later. 4 and then その上
adj 〔限定用法のみ〕当時の

 

whom

文法上、Like whom were you saying (that) I looked? は正しいけれども、実際にこう言う人はいない。(参照

Ungrammatical but Normal: Who were you saying (that) I looked like?

Alternative choice: You were saying (that) I looked like whom? (⤴)

〔… since who or whom often occurs at the beginning of the sentence or clause, there is a strong tendency to choose who no matter what its function. (Random House)〕