Level 4

参考:レベル4 読解の基礎を固める英単語 (アルクのレベル別語彙リスト) 、Merriam-Webster Learner's Dictionary, Oxford Learner's Dictionary, Collins Dictionary, Vocaburary.com

accuse A (of B) AをB のかどで非難する - They stand accused of crimes against humanity. (Oxf)


consist of (◀この動詞は大概この形〔文法上、自動詞だが of sth なしでは文が成立しない〕~からる - Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen.

The whole consists of (=is made up of) several parts.

まれに、この形▶ consist in 《雅言》 (~の本領・意義などは)~にある 

The parts consist in the whole.

- Happiness does not consist in self-love. (Joseph Butler, 1692–1752)

cheat A of B AからBを騙し取る - They cheated me (out) of 20 dollars / a fair deal. (M-W)

strip A (of B) AからBを剥がす - strip a tree of the bark

strip B (from A) strip the bark from a tree (M-W)

heal A of B AのBを治す

assure/convince/persuade A of B AにB(について)を納得させる

despair of A Aに失望する、Aをあきらめる - We have come to despair of him / finding the lost child. - His life is despaired of.


ignorant adj らない:無知な、無教養な/(教養はあるがまだあることを)知らずにいる - At the same time, we are surprisingly ignorant about some things that are much more ordinary. (Time, Sep 11, 2016)/《俗語》 無作法な、無礼な

be ignorant of を知らない

ignorance n 何かについて知らないこと

ignorance is bliss 《ことわざ》 知らないことは心配できない

- He who neglects to drink of the spring of experience is likely to die of thirst in the desert of ignorance. ― Li Bai (李白 701-762AD)


be beloved of/by - I am belou'd of beautious Hermia. (Shakespeare, Midsummer Night's Dream, 1600)

be capable of のできる

be greedy of/for に対して欲深な〔for がより好まれる〕


多義語 ★★★★★

reference n v 1〔可・不可算〕言及(する)、話や作品に(言明/暗示して)持ち出す(こと)

make reference to sth =reference sth (=mention =refer to)

- The book references many other authors who have …. (M-W) - With[In] reference to your letter of May 15,…〔《雅言》=about =WRT =with regard[respect] to〕 引用(する);出典(をつける) - Each chapter is referenced, citing literature up to 2008. (Oxf);参照のための符号や番号 3参照(する) - write it down for future reference.〔備忘録に〕 - works of reference =reference books〔辞書類、参考図書〕- calculated/judged by reference to the latest information 4照会(する)、相談して意見を仰ぐ - The emergency nurse can treat minor injuries without reference to a doctor. (Oxf) 5照会者、身元保証人;紹介状、身元保証書





adapt [ədǽpt] vi vt《必要に応じて変える・変わること》順応適応する・させる/脚色改作翻案編曲する - It's amazing how soon you adaptAdopt, adapt, and improve. (Monty Python)

The young business and professional men of this country must get together round the table, adopt methods that have proved so sound in the past, adapt them to the changing needs of the times and wherever possible, improve them. (the Prince of Wales, 1927)

>> adaptation (L7) 適応、順応、適合/改作物、 (…向けの)脚色

【注意】adopt [ədάpt]《ありのまま取り込むこと》採用する/養子にする



apologize (to you) (for the mistake- We apologize for the mistake and promise that it won't happen again. (M-W)

apologize vi 謝罪する、悔恨の念を表す - She doesn't apologize for her lifestyle. (M-W)〔間違っていると思わない〕- To apologise is to admit that you are at fault. But sorry only expresses regret.(www.english-online.org.uk)



appreciate it - I would appreciate it if you would …〔依頼〕

appreciatevt 尊重する、価値・重きを置く - The company strives to make its employees feel appreciated. (M-W) 2 vt 感謝する - I really appreciated your kind offer. - I don't appreciate being ignored. (M-W) - Your kind offers are much appreciated. vt (物事・状況などを)認識・理解・把握する - I wonder if I'm appreciating the logic correctly. 4vi 価値が上がるWhether your home will appreciate over time is mostly out of your control. (Smartasset.com)

resemble her sister / each other


多義語 ★★★★

assume vt 推測仮定する/とむ/る、(任務・責務・債務などを)引き受ける・担う/様子様相びる、まとう、着る - This matter has assumed considerable importance. (Oxf)

engage [inɡéidʒ] vi vt 《正式》引きつける、没頭する・させる;取り組む・ませる;を雇う;戦い始める

engage in 従事する、携わる / engage (someone) in 従事させる 《再帰》engage oneself in 取り組む  

予約する、《受動態/形容詞》engaged 婚約する 



gross adj 1総計~ 2大雑把な 3不適格な 4論外・法外・言語道断の、あるまじき 5《俗語》不快な =disgusting n 1[pl= gross] 12ダース(144個)2 [pl= grosses]《米》(特に映画の収益)総額~ v  (税込みで~の)収益を得る

resort n v 1る(こと)、みの 2足繫く行く 3行楽地、大勢がよく行く所、リゾート、休養地 - last resort 最後の手段 - In Israel, US Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta says all other options should be exhausted before resorting to military action in Iran. (VOA, Aug 2, 2012)



多義語 ★★★


accord《正式》1vt accord A to B | accord B A to give a kind of  importance or a certaine thought etc. to sb/sth (敬意関心・価値・好意などを)う・置く・抱く 2 vi accord with sth に一致する、調和する n (組織や国家間の)合意、協定

apt adj 1  ふさわしい、的確な =appropriate - an apt remark.- It's apt to wear the cardigan. 2 be apt to しがちな - They are apt to think that sv. - Young men are apt to think themselves wise enough, as drunken men are apt to think themselves sober enough. (Philip Stanhope, 1694–1773, 英) 3〔限定用法〕利発な、できる =smart, talented - apt students.

betray vt 1[+ sb/sth (to sb)] 裏切 - betray own country to other governments〔敵に情報を売る〕(参考 M-W自分の前言や信条に反する言動をする 2意思に反して真相露呈する - betrays your hunger / sorrow 

bother vi vt 1[+ (with/about sth)(to do)(doing)]〔よく否定・疑問で〕わざわざする 2(怒らせる・苛立たせる・心配させるなど人を)わせる n 1〔不加算〕トラブル、困難 2a bother ひとつの問題(な人・事)

be bothered (about sb/sth)《特に英俗》重要視する - I am not bothered about it.

can't be bothered (to do sth) 面倒だ、やりたくない

founder (on sth) vi 1(計画が)頓挫する 2(船が)沈没する n 創設者

pitch げること、宣伝口上傾斜、こう配/(特に船の)縦揺れ/周期間隔/度合い、音高(おんこう)/タール/v 投げる/(テントや露店などを)立てる、張る

- …public indignation has reached such a pitch that

stall n 1(市場・畜舎・教会・駐車場などの仕切られた狭い)区画、個室 2車のエンスト、飛行機の失速

v 1(車が・を)エンストする・させる 2(返事を怠るなどして )時間稼ぎをする 3失速する・させる - Yet only a few blocks away, where street stall vendors once sold fruit and vegetables, pawnshops and mostly empty casinos dot the streets. (New York Times, Sep 10,  2016) - …for talks to revive stalled nuclear disarmament negotiations with North Korea. (VOA News)



county [káʊnti カウンティ] 自治区 ▶ country [kʌ́ntri カントリー]


determined adj

be determined (to do/that sv) 決意のある、思うところのある

be bound and determined《北米》〔決意のあることを強調した表現〕

a very determined opponent 〔確固とした、断固とした〕

【比較】動詞 determine は過去形の場合も主に判断の内容を言う


administration n政権幹部運営陣経営陣管理部/2運営管理行政執行/3 薬の投与 - the administration of antibiotics 抗生物質の投与


associate v n adj 

» associated adj 1関連して、関連づく

- …while rustic refers to the unrefined qualities associated with country life. (Vocabulary.com)

concerned adj 

- those concerned with making computer systems 
- the authorities concerned 当該局、関係省庁、当局
- all the parties concerned 関係者一同
- all concerned in a given issue 
- If you are concerned about safety of raw eggs, … 
- We are concerned about the approaching hurricane. 
- Concerned parents held a meeting. 


conscience 良心自制心道義心 =principles, moral sense, scruples, sense of right and wrong, still small voice

prick your conscience / your conscience pricks you 良心がとがめる

- To be or not to be that is the question: (……) When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, Must give us pause: (……) Thus conscience does make cowards of us all; (William Shakespeare, Hamlet, 1600頃)

consciousness 意識自覚正気

- Finally he recovered consciousness.



constitution 憲法、組織・団体の大元となる規約/《正式》構造、構成・形成(すること)/体のつくり、体質、体格

council [káʊnsln1地方自治体の本体、選出された議会、地方議会 2《評議会、審議会、諮問委員会、協議会、資金援助会など》特定の目的を持つ常設・臨時の付加的な集り 3《英》 [Council枢密院

congress n 1正式な大規模代表者会議 2《・他》Congress 国会連邦議会〔選挙で選ばれた議員からなる立法府〕〔アメリカでは上院(the Senate)と下院(the House of Representatives)から成る〕

parliament n 1選挙制の立法府 2《・他》Parliament 国会〔現在のイギリスでは上院(the House of Lords)と下院(the House of Commons)から成る〕


evident adj 証拠から明白- an evident mistake / crime / fact / proof / truth - It's evident that . - As is evident from , - with evident sorrow/joy/anger…


extent さ、きさ、重大さ、深刻さなどの度合い - …assess the full extent of the damage. - …amazed at the extent of his knowledge. - To a certain extent,… - …had changed to such an extent (= so much) that It's no longer recognizable to anyone. - To some extent, what he argues is true. - … has seriously affected his life and, to a lesser extent, mine as well. - To what extent is it true of all people? - The document discusses the extent to which (= how much) our life has changed since then.


flee - fled - fled vt vi (場を)る、[+from] げる
- try to flee the country / the police / the enemy / the scene of the accident - refugees fleeing from the war - In Syria, the UN says thousands of Palestinians have fled a refugee camp… (VOA News) - It has destroyed at least 79 homes and has forced 8,900 people to flee. (Seattle Times, 2002) 


impose 新規に導入する/負担を負わせる/考えなどを押しつける、強要する、無理強いする - A new tax was imposed on fuel. - Do not impose on others what you yourself do not desire. (Confucius 孔子, 551-479 BC)


inevitable adj 1必然的、不可避の、避けようのない 2《よくユーモアのセンスで》〔限定用法〕~につきものの 

the inevitable 確実に起きること〔形容詞に定冠詞をつけて名詞にする用法〕

「ユーモア(英: humour、独: humor, フモーア)とは、人を和ませるような《おかしみ》のこと。かつて日本語ではこうした表現を諧謔(かいぎゃく)と呼んでいた。日本語では「有情滑稽」と訳されることがある」(ユーモア - Wikipedia


intellectual adj (人や物事が)知的な n 知識人、インテリ


marked adj 1明らかな、りの 2目(星)・をつけられた(にらまれた、期待された)

a marked man/woman 目をつけられた人


peculiar adjな、な - I feel peculiar. 気分が優れない - The peculiar thing was that no one knew his name. 2独特の - I hear the fruit has a peculiar smell. - There was something peculiar about you. - a species of plant peculiar to Asia - the peculiar properties of protein


proceed v ける、める・む - You may proceed after you have stopped and it's safe. - How may I proceed?


prose n (詩以外の)文章言葉 - The marvelously melodic prose of Julian of Norwich or Richard Rolle, for example, lends weight to the theory. (Linda Newbery, Riddle Me This, 1993)  - It's not news that a good deal of contemporary poetry is actually a kind of prose masquerading in the typography of poetry. (Exquisite Corpse, 2000) - His answer was to deliver a speech whose prose sounded often like poetry. (New York Post, 2002)



prospect n 1見込み・見通し - …with no prospect of it going anywhere. - Long-term prospects for the economy have improved. - At this early moment, what are the prospects of a real contest for either office in the 2018 election? (www.wbur.org, Sep, 2016) 2見込みある人や事物 - One of America's best prospects for a gold medal, the men's basket ball team, rolled to its third easy victory without a loss,… (The Daily Reporter, 1984) 3眺望、見晴らし(の良い場所) - SCENE, Windsor Park, with a Prospect of the Castle. (Robert Anderson, 1795) 4ものの面する向き 5予測する人 v 資源や石油を探索する


resource n =生活や目的達成に役立つ金品や知識

a reserve of aid or support or supply or idea that may be drawn upon when needed

資源天然資源、人的資源、物資という日本語で言う「資源」をすべてカバー)2資金資財 3資料(参考資料、文献)4(機転・才能など)資質


- an act of revenge - swear to have one's revenge

take a revenge (up)on sb

take responsibility for sth

take credit for sth/the work/the good/the fact …

take place on Sunday

take action/effect on sth


seize v (物事・人を)つかむ =grab、らえる - Panic Seizes India as a Region's Strife Radiates. (New York Times, 2012) - seize on/upon sth にわかに強い関心を示す

seize the day 〔ラテン語の carpe diem の翻訳借用〕先のことを憂えず今(今日)を生きる(楽しむ)〔主に激励・鼓舞・助言に使う〕


sleeve n 1衣服の(そで) 2(保護・収納などの)フォルダー状・筒状などのケース・覆い - He sliped a CD into a plastic sleeve.

roll up one's sleeves 腕まくりをする

have[keep] a card/a trick/some more tricks/an idea, etc. up one's sleeve 考えや計画を入用時まで内に秘めておく (» Oxfcard)

wear one's heart on one's sleeve 開けっ広げに振る舞う (» Oxf, heart)


spite 意地悪悪意 =malice - She said that just out of spite- The things accomplished in spite of violence and Jim Crow were being honored. (Washington PostSep 21, 2016)in spite of にもかかわらず〕 vt 意地悪をする

in spite of oneself 我知らず、知らないうちに


stake n 1 =pole, stick 2、出資金、投資、賞金 3関わり合い、関心事 v 1危険す 2杭で支える、杭を使う


at stake 賭けられている、かかっている、危機に瀕している



submit 《差し出す》vt submit sth to sb/sth 提出する 2vi vt《正式》submit (to sb/sth) | submit onerself (to sb/sth服従する - submit to an authority 3vt 《正式》submit that sv =say or suggest と考える、言いたい - I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is unjust, and who willingly accepts the penalty of imprisonment in order to arouse the conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the highest respect for law. (Martin Luther King, Jr.)


token [tóukən] n 1代用貨幣 2記念のもの、土産、思い出・形見の品 3になるもの、しるし、兆候 4見本 5差別のない証としての人員 adj 印・形の - as a token of my appreciation

by the same token = for the same reasons

token gesture = mere symbolic action


wisdom n 英知

- By three methods we may learn wisdom: First, by reflection, which is noblest; Second, by imitation, which is easiest; and third by experience, which is the bitterest. (Confucius 孔子)

- Just as treasures are uncovered from the earth, so virtue appears from good deeds, and wisdom appears from a pure and peaceful mind. To walk safely through the maze of human life, one needs the light of wisdom and the guidance of virtue. (Buddha)

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