読者です 読者をやめる 読者になる 読者になる

My Favorite Things

趣味のなんでもコレクション  ラジオから流れてきた、どこかで聞き覚えのあるメロディ、なじみ深い作品や目新しい印象的な楽章など…

Level 5

参考: レベル5 大学受験前に覚える英単語(アルクのレベル別語彙リスト)、Oxford Learner's Dictionary, Collins Dictionary, Vocabulary.com

多義語 ★★★ (★は重要度:Collins Dictionaryによる頻出度で★5つが最高)

compose vt 1《正式》構成形成する =form, constitute、構成要素となる 2作曲する 3手紙を(きちんと)書く 4《正式》(感情や表現を)自己制御する - Please compose yourself! 

be composed of 《やや固め》=consist of (全体が)~で形成される、~から成る

» composition 組み立て、組成/作文

多義語 ★★★★

constitute《正式》1となる 〔多くの辞書で他動詞だが Oxf, M-W では linking verb » be動詞のように補語を取り第2文型を作る〕=amount to - constitute a crime / threat / fraud 罪/脅威/違法となる、〔他動詞的には〕を構成・形成する =form, compose - Twelve months constitute compose one year.

【比較】- One year consists of is composed of twelve months.consist of が一般的な表現/Oxf 参照〕- farmers constituted 10 percent of the population (Google)〔割合を占める〕

vt設立する 3任命する =appoint  - He is the constituted spokesman for the committee.

» constitution 憲法/構成/体つき、体質

 

conceive (of)

vi vt 《正式》いつく、着想する/身籠る

- If you cannot conceive of something, you cannot imagine it or believe it. (Collins Dictionary)

- I cannot conceive (= I do not believe) (that) he would wish to harm us. (Oxf)

- Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. (President Abraham Lincoln, The Gettysburg Address, 1863) 87年前、われわれの父祖たちは、自由の精神にはぐくまれ、人はみな平等に創られているという信条にささげられた新しい国家を、この大陸に誕生させた。〔リンカーン大統領によるゲティスバーグ演説より冒頭部(訳:米国大使館HPより)〕

 

depriveof B  AのB(特に大事なこと)を奪う - is deprived of sleep〔睡眠不足〕

relieve A of B AをBから解き放つ - be relieved of one’s post / responsibility / fears / anxieties

 

consume vt 1(燃料・エネルギー・時間・食べ物などを)消費する〔consume of sth の形で使われている例が見られるけれども、辞書に of を用いる使い方は出ていない〕 2[+ sb (withsth)]《普通、受身》強い感情で満たす、消耗させる〔→《受身》「食われる」「蝕まれる」「身をやつす」のような意味〕 -Don't be consumed with this.

3(火炎が)燃やし尽くす

 

多義語 ★★

dispose 

vi dispose of sb/sth 1(人・物事を)処分始末廃棄する 

- How will you dispose of yourself / this problem?

vt 《正式》2[sth/sb+adv/prepべる、配置する 3[sb+to/toward sth] 仕向ける - a drug that disposes the patient towards sleep (Oxf) - At Athens, wise men propose, and fools dispose. (Alcuin, 735–804) - It is foolish to wish for beauty. Sensible people never either desire it for themselves or care about it in others. If the mind be but (=only) well cultivated, and the heart well disposed, no one ever cares for the exterior. (Anne Brontë 1820–1849 英, Agnes Grey, 1847)

 

distress n 1苦痛 2貧苦 v [svo] 困窮させる

 

inquire (also 英 =enquire*) vi vt [+ ((about/aftersb/sth)] 問い合わせる - inquire into sth 情報収集する - inquire of sb if/who/what/that/how/where《正式》 人に質問する

* イギリスでは使い分けて enquire は普通の質問、 inquire には公式なニュアンスを置くことがある(参考:Oxford Dictionary

【比較】ask sb sth [svoo] » ask sth of sb [svo]

 

attain vt 達成成就する、げる/

Remember, no effort that we make to attain something beautiful is ever lost. (Helen Keller, 1880–1968)

 

breadth =width

- We wanted that breadth in our own lives, because we saw that breadth as a widening of the world. (Killing the Buddha, 2004)

the length and breadth of 端から端まで

- Any man who can hitch the length and breadth of the galaxy, rough it, slum it, struggle against terrible odds, win through, and still knows where his towel is is clearly a man to be reckoned with. (Douglas Adams イギリスの脚本家)

 

brim 帽子つば/コップなど器のふち

v ふちまで一杯になる・する

- Like a cup about to spill, you can’t quite contain yourself when you’re brimming with joy. (Vocabulary.com)

 

comprehension n 1 理解力理解したこと/言語の練習/2含有

 

多義語 ★★★★

compromise n 折衷案での合意解決、折り合った合意/〔予算と機種性能など〕折衷した妥協策 

After making concessions, two sides come to a compromise

reach/make a compromise

- There's no prospect of compromise in sight.

妥協譲歩する

to refuse/prepare to compromise (on/over sth)

危険・疑いの目にす =expose、名誉を損なう =dishonor, embarrass、信用・評判を落とす

- If you never repair your brakes, you will compromise the safety of the car. If you cheat, you compromise your integrity. (Vocabulary.com)

- …, as stress tends to compromise the immune system. (ezinearticles.com, 2005)

- Can I buy that product without compromising my ethics? (TED lecture)

consensus 合意全体意見総意、民意/一般的な意見

- to come to/reach a consensus over an issue

consent 《正式》n vi 承諾同意(する)

- The written consent of a parent is required.

- by common/mutual consent みなの/相互の合意で

- … received consent from my boss to begin work on the project.

- You're on my estate, and you'll do nothing without my consent. (Lisa Kleypas, WORTH ANY PRICE, 2003)
- The consent of NTT, Japan's dominant telecoms carrier, is crucial for the deal to go ahead. (Wired, 2002)

 

contempt 軽蔑/(法廷などに対する)侮辱罪、不服従罪

- to look at someone with contempt

- His remarks betray a staggering contempt for the truth (= are completely false). (Oxford)

despise vt 見下す、嫌悪する、軽蔑する

- The pangs of despised love, the law's delay, (Shakespeare)

  

diligent = industrious adj 勤勉な、よく

- In 1996, Americans surpassed the famously industrious Japanese in hours per week. (Philadelphia Inquirer, 2003)

earnest [ə́ːrnist] adj n 真剣誠実(な)/約束・保証の証拠になるもの、手付金

in earnest まじめに、真剣に、本心から
- And upstairs, the normal business of a high school  English, algebra  carried on in earnest. (Chicago Sun-Times, 2005)【日刊紙】

 

esteem [istí:m] n《改まった言葉》尊敬敬愛賞賛

v〔主に受身〕尊敬・敬愛・賞賛する - the esteemed leader

《古風》《改まった表現》〔第4文型〕- … that Beethoven was esteemed the greatest pianist of his time and an improviser of unrivalled power. (The Flaming Sword, 1908, American Christian literature)

hold someone in high esteem/regard

- The surest way to corrupt a youth is to instruct him to hold in higher esteem those who think alike than those who think differently.   (Friedrich Nietzsche, 1844–1900, 独)

  

evidently adv らかに、てのり =clearly, obviously/みなが言う通り =apparently

  

f:id:karlalou002:20160930214639j:plainhowl [haʊl] 

v n 遠吠えする/嘆く、うめく

風がうなる

 

多義語 ★★★★

implement《雅言》

v 実施実行する/n 道具〔toolのfancy word〕

 

lame adj v n下手な、説得力のない/不自由な、歩行困難な、びっこの/凝って痛い/《俗》つまらない、時代遅れな

- These awards roast bloggers for being boring or lame or obsessed or weird. (Wired, 2002)

 

missile [英 mísail | 米 mísl] ミサイル、弾道弾

 

oblige 《正式》1vt [+ sb to do sth]《通例受身または再起》(法律や礼節によって)義務づける、いる、余儀なくさせる 2vi vt [+ (sb by/with (doing) sth)] (頼まれたことを)してあげる、る、御用聞きをする Would you oblige me with some information? (Oxf) - Call me if you need any help—I'd be happy to oblige. (Oxf) - He obliged her with a willing attitude. (oblige, The Free Dictionary)

obliged adj《正式》有難く思う、恩義を感じる

- I'd be obliged if you would keep this to yourself. (Oxf)

- …now it is the time to oblige us with your presence at our wedding… (Google検索)

- You can also tip your cowboy hat and be "Much obliged" if someone does you a favor. (Vocabulary.com)“Much obligedは Thank you など感謝の言葉に添えて(あるいは代わりに)使われる。特に西部劇(19世紀後半が舞台)によく見られ、テキサスやアリゾナでは今でも使われる。省略形のせいもあって格式張った印象はない〕

- You will oblige me by taking them. 受け取っていただければありがたいです(小学館プログレッシブ英和辞典、1980)〔ネイティブ数名談(▶ stackexchange.com)では、英国王室やビクトリア時代(1837–1901)ならともかく、この表現は特上の敬語で、贈り物の際に今の一般人が使うと謙り過ぎ - Allow me to make you a present of a set of confounded books on husbandry; you will oblige me by taking them, for otherwise I shall burn every one of them. (The Quarterly Journal of Agriculture, Volume 13, 1843

- Wanted: Iraqis to Run Iraq Iraq's people want to rule themselves, and the U. S. is eager to oblige. (Time Magazine, 2003)

【参考】

noblesse oblige [noublés oublí:ʒ]《仏》=nobility obligates 「位高ければ徳高きを要す」ノブレス・オブリージュ(グーグル検索、ほか)

- Yet, by the mid-1880s, the WCTU was becoming a voice for changes that leaped the boundaries of noblesse oblige. (Michael Kazin, The Populist Persuasion: An American History, 1995)

Obrigado/Obrigada《ポルトガル》ありがとう

 

plead (forvi vt 〔+with 人に〕陳述嘆願弁護する - How do you plead?〔裁判官の言葉〕- to hire a lawyer to plead one's case

- Wildstein has pleaded guilty in the case and is cooperating with federal prosecutors. (Seatle times, Sep, 2016)

- On occasion, defendants may plead guilty to lesser offenses than those with which they were originally charged. (Tannahill, Neal R. American Government: Policy and Politics, 1995)

- Bill did not plead with her, neither did he offer to marry her. (Patrick Robinson, NIMITZ CLASS, 1997)

- The 19-year-old sister of one of the teens also said yesterday that the two planned to plead guilty to the charge. (Seattle Times, 2004)

 

plow n 耕作用具・除雪用具の(すき/牛馬や車に引かせて土や雪を掘り返す大きな刃 ※鋤(すき)とは別物)

vi vt す、かきする/に皺・筋を入れる/設備投資する/取りかかる/かきけて

f:id:karlalou002:20161005075044j:plain

 

plunge n み(台)、むこと =dive/下落低下 =drop/《話》無謀な投資/軽いひと泳ぎ

vi vt ちる・とす、突進する・させる、のめるむ、む/(価格・坂・評判などが)急落・急降下する/(馬・車など)ガクンと沈んで上がる/《話》危ない賭けをする/(仕事や本などに)どっぷり浸り込む

- Between May 10 and 18, Target stock plunged more than 16 percent; it currently trades close to $69 per share. (US News, Oct 4, 2016)

- Colombia was plunged into uncertainty after a proposed peace deal between the government and Farc guerrillas was narrowly voted down in a referendum on Sunday. (The Guardian, Oct 3, 2016)

 

prevail vi はびこる/優勢になる/挽(バン)回する

prevail on/upon sb to do sth (人を)〜するよう説き伏せる

 

procession n (儀式の)行進行列

f:id:karlalou002:20161003104306j:plain

 

proclaim vt ~を・と公表宣言宣告明示する =declare/める、える =extol

- On this day, we come to proclaim an end to the petty grievances and false promises,… (President Obama)

- His accent proclaimed him (to be) a Southerner. (Oxford)〔to beなしなら第4文型〕

  

provision n 供給すること、供給されたもの:施設設備え、備蓄/(pl) 糧食 (リョウショク/保存・携行する食料)/法律・契約文書中にある条件や但し書き(=proviso)

vt [+someone/sometjing (with something)] 〜に蓄え(の何か)を提供する

- Education is the best provision for old age. (Aristotle, 384 BC–322 BC, ギリシャ)

Once fully provisioned, that ship would set off for Mars. (Economist, 2016)

 

prudent adj 賢明
⇔ imprudent
- Certainly no prudent fiscal steward would bet the budget on it. (Washinton Post, Sep 19, 2016)

- Some guys are the type of people who bring brass knuckles to a fight. I've always thought it prudent to bring some running shoes.(Jarod Kintz)

rational adj にかなった、論理的な、筋の通った、合理の、感情論でない/理性的な、冷静な、感情的でない

rational number 有理数(分数に表すと分子と分母が整数になる数)

 

多義語 ★★★★

register v n 登録(する)/《正式》意志表明する/感情れる/(測定器が)記録検知する、(人が)づく、記憶める/(郵便物を)書留にする/公式な一覧、名簿、名鑑/音域、声域/(言葉の)使用域、スタイル/記録簿の1件分のデータ/記録器、cash register/(印刷などで)見当を合わせる/空調設備の空気坑

- to register at a hotel 宿をとる

- The thermometer registered 90°F.

- to be on the register of voters

- in the upper/middle/lower register 高音/中音/低音

 

resume [米 rizú:m リズーム| 英 rizjú:m リジューム] v 再開する、さえぎられた後、続ける/席・場所に戻る

- The Martha Stewart trial, in recess yesterday for Lincoln's Birthday, was to resume this morning. (Seattle Times, 2004)

résumé [米 rézəmei |英 rézjumei]《仏》n 履歴書/要約、概要

 

scarce [skérs] adj しい、しい =rare, few

adv ほとんど〜ない =hardly, scarcely

- scarce resources

- Meanwhile, as Americans scramble for scarce doses of flu vaccine, the CDC has another worry: bird flu. (Seattle Times, 2004)

make oneself scarce (informal) 距離を置く

- I do not ask him how it is going, and I make myself scarce. (Michael Gruber, TROPIC OF NIGHT, 2003)

senate n 1(アメリカ、オーストラリア、カナダ、フランスなどの)上院〔選挙で選ばれる〕 2(国により)大学の管理陣営、理事会 3古代ローマ(753BC–476AD)の政府幹部とその集会場所

- A gray haired man enters the senate chamber, he is a big man well over six feet and muscled. (All for the glory of Rome)

statesman [stéɪtsmən] 内政外交れた指導者・政治家

 

sentiment n 《正式》感情心情意識、情感、感傷

- In contrast with the growing pro-Japan sentiment, local feeling toward China is deteriorating. (Nikkei Asian Review, Oct 3, 2016)

- I myself have never been able to find out precisely what feminism is: I only know that people call me a feminist whenever I express sentiments that differentiate me from a doormat." (Rebecca West, 1892–1983)

 

shed v (自然摂理で葉や昆虫の皮、毛髪などを)とす、なくす、ける/血・涙を流す/光・熱・液体を放出する/(不要なものを)減らす、削減する/水をはじく/〜を収納場所にしまう

n 物置き、倉庫、納屋

 

strive - strove[strived] - striven[strived]

vi 努力奮闘する
Strive not to be a success, but rather to be of value. (Albert Einstein)

 

summon [sʌ́mən] vt (formal) 人を召喚する、集会などに招集する、助力・援軍などを呼び集める、(特に困難なものを)自助力で生み出す

>> salmon [sǽmən]

 

多義語 ★★★★

sustain vi vtえる、支援する、励ます 2ける、維持・持続する 3ける、《改まった表現》る、える 4(役を)こなす 5《裁判で》申し立て・異議を認める

- A healthy existence can only be sustained when we recognize the correlation between our toxic planet and our polluted bodies and become conscious stewards of both. (Mary Laredo, Whole Body Detox (Part 1) - NaturalNews.com)

- It doesn't interest me where or what or with whom you have studied. I want to know what sustains you, from the inside, when all else falls away. (Oriah Mountain)

 

tread vt vi n [trɛd] - trod - trodden[or trod]

〔[ɛ]は[e]と[æ]の中間の音。英語で[ɛ]と[e]の区別は不可欠ではない〕
く、む、る、みつける 
むこと、足取り、足音/タイヤ・車輪・靴の接地面/タイヤの溝形/轍(わだち)/階段の足が踏む面

- By 2002, Mr. Miller was showing up where few Democrats dared tread. (Washington Times, 2004) 〔dare (to) do〕

fools rush in (where angels fear to tread)
《諺》 知らない人ほど分かった人ならやらないことに立ち入る意

tread water 立ち泳ぎ/何もせずに待つ

- Editorial: Time to stop 'treading water' and fix prison staffing issues (Omaha World-Herald, Sep 1, 2016)

 

aisle [áil] n 通路

f:id:karlalou002:20161005104214j:plain

corridor [米 kóːrɪdɔːr (アクセント付ɔをóで代用)] n 廊下

f:id:karlalou002:20161005104849j:plain

 

allowance [əláʊəns] n 1定期的されるお手当、親が子供に渡すおこづかい 2される 3《米》自由に使える小遣い、ポケットマネー

 

calf [米 kæf | 英 /kɑːf] (pl calves [米 kævz| 英 /kɑːvz]

ふくらはぎ子牛、象やクジラなど大型の動物の子供

f:id:karlalou002:20161003080733j:plain

 

f:id:karlalou002:20161003092342j:plainhedge n /防御

vi 即答ける/vt 〜に生け垣を設ける/《主に受身》《改まった表現》囲む、制限する

hedge one's bets 失敗を避けて両方に賛同する

headge against sth (特にお金を守るため)防御すること

headge in sth/sb 囲む、取り囲む

headge fund ヘッジファンド:企業や富豪の大口の投資で、市場の価格変動に左右されない(参考:ウィキペディア)

 

f:id:karlalou002:20160930215902j:plainherd [hə́ːrd] n 動物のれ/群衆/

v 一方向に動く・動かす

 

 

 

pasture n 牧草地牧草/〔pl〕仕事や生活の状況

v 放牧する 

put someone out to pasture/grass 退職させる 

- And at 67, Judd Hirsch has hardly reached an age when credible character actors are typically put out to pasture. (USA Today, 2002)

f:id:karlalou002:20160929232656j:plain

 

多義語 ★★★★

sole n adj 唯一の/単独の/靴底/ゴルフクラブなどの底面/ヒラメ、カレイなど食用になるたい

f:id:karlalou002:20140510023049p:image

v 靴などに底を付ける

- the sole rights to a patent (Collins Dictionary)(専売特許?—日本語の「専売特許」は「特許」の旧称とされ、「特許」で正式名らしい)

f:id:karlalou002:20140518003427p:imagecrossroads

交差点わる

 

 

 

 

20140518004103to be at a crossroads

岐路に立つ 

 

 

 

 

20140518001228crosswalk

横断歩道 

 

 

 

 

20140518005824dairy [déəri]

乳製品